Associate Professor, Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Detroit Medical Center Orthopedic Surgery, Director of Robotic Rehabilitation Lab
818 West Hancock Street, Detroit, Michigan, USA 48201
Dr. Chen received MD degree in Fujian Medical University, China in 1987 and completed orthopaedic residency training and orthopedic graduate education in Beijing Medical University, China in 1990. He practiced orthopaedic surgery in Fujian Medical University and conducted orthopedic biomechanical research using photoelasticity methods from 1990 to1994. He was selected as an International Fellow by the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS) in 1994. He won a Postdoctoral Fellowship Award from Arthritis Foundation and completed postdoctoral training at the Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University in 1998. The research projects include neurophysiologic mechanisms of lower back pain; neurophysiology and biomechanics of neck whiplash pain; axonal injury tolerances to nerve stretch; ultrasonic cutting device nerve safety evaluation; high bio-fidelity nerve signal recording and processing; brain wave controlled robotic exoskeleton; electromyography (EMG) controlled medical robotic exoskeleton; nano graphene electrodes for peripheral neural interface (PNI) and peripheral muscle interface (PMI); vehicle human interface (VHI) for drowsy driving and driver behaviors monitoring, driver comfort enhancement and muscle fatigue prevention. His research has won multiple awards from prestigious orthopedic research society and car crash conferences.
- MD: Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fujian, China, 1982- 1987
- Postgraduate of Surgery (Ph.D.): Beijing Medical University, Beijing, China 1987-1990
- Post doctor of Neurophysiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA, 1994-1997
BME5990: Development of Architecture of Computer Controlled Robotic Exoskeletons.
Upper arm or lower limb exoskeletons will be designed using NX software. The sketches will be sent to profession service to make parts. The parts will be assembled in robotic exoskeleton lab and machine shop. Micro-control chips, servo chips, and battery will be integrated into the exoskeletons. Computer algorithms will be made to control joint movement based on human kinesiology. The function of exoskeleton will be tested and validated using a 170lb body weight hybrid-dummy system.
BME7990: Development of Architecture of Intuitively Controlled Exoskeletons.
This direct study covers research topics including human machine interface, bio-electrical signal processing, mechanical designing of exoskeletons, development of electromechanical system, computer algorithms, and robot function evaluation.Human bio-electrical signals such as muscle electrical signals (electromyography, EMG) or brain wave signal (electroencephalography, EEG) will be recorded, decoded and encoded to make algorithms for intuitive control of robotic actuation system. High bio-fidelity EMG and EEG signals will be recorded using novel electrodes such as nano-graphene multi-array electordes. EMG and EEG features will be extracted for computer algorithm development and optimization of multiple degree of freedom exoskeleton limbs’ motions. Robotic exoskeleton system includes upper arms and lower limbs and soft-body hands.
BME5995/EGR5995: Basic Neurophysiology and Its Application in Robotic Rehabilitation Engineering
Co-listed as Study Abroad Program:
- Biomedical Signal Processing
- Neural Engineering
- Neuromuscular Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering
- Wearable Biomedical Sensors & Systems
- Medical Robotics and Exoskeleton
- Orthopaedic Biomechanics
- Human Vehicle Interface & Automotive Safety
- Statistics Based Machine Learning
Compuer Controlled Lower Limb Exoskeleton Ambulation System
Intuitive Exoskeleton Prototype Development
EMG controlled stepper motor rotation video:
1. EMG controlled arm
2. Trajectory Control mechanisms
3. Adaptive Control mechanisms
4. Brain Wave Controlled Wheelchair movement (Collaborative with universities in China)
Chaoyang Chen. Low-Cost Development of High Quality Automotive Safety Products. In Li Li & Yu Dong, Detroit: Butt China Automotive Industry (Chinese Edition). Economic Science. Press:Beijing, China. ISBN978-7-5141-4628-8, 2014, page 130-135.
John M Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen, Srinivasu Kallakuri. Thoracolumbar Pain: Neural Machanisms and Biomechanics. In: Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention. Edited by Narayan Yoganandan, Alan M. Nahum, John W. Melvin, ISBN 978-4939-1731-0. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-1732-7 2015, Springer:New York, Page 581-611.
- Orthopaedic Research Society (1999 to present)
- Society for Neuroscience (1998 to present)
- Associate of NIH Directors, Council of Public Representatives (COPR), 2006-2008
- Fujian Province Biomechanics Society (1992-1994)
Papers and Conferences
Papers related to Drowsy Driving
Chaoyang Chen，Wenjun Wang，Chaofei Zhang，Bo Cheng，Chao Zeng，Xiangjie Meng，John M Cavanaugh. Quantitative Analysis Electroencephalography for Determination of Drowsy Driving. Journal of Automotive Safety and Energy 2016. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8484.2016.02.006.
Zeng C, Wang W, Chen C, Zhang C， Cheng B，Cavanaugh JM. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Heart Rate Variability and Encephalography in Driver’s Fatigue State. Transducer and Microsystem Technologies 2016,35,1:7-10. DOI:10.13873/J.1000-9787(2016)01-007-04 (In Chinese).
Zhang C, Wang W, Chen C; Zhen C; Meng M, Cheng B, Cavanaugh JM. Determination of Optimal Electroencephalography Recording. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2016. (Submitted)
Chaoyang Chen, Chaofei Zhang, Wenjun Wang, Chao Zeng, Xiangjie Meng, Bo Cheng, John M Cavanaugh. Characterization of Quantitative Electroencephalography and Heart Rate Variability during Simulated Drowsy Driving. Podium presentation of BMES 2015 Tampa, FL, USA.
Chaoyang Chen, Chaofei Zhang, Wenjun Wang, Bo Cheng, Chao Zeng, Yang Zhou, John M Cavanaugh. Quantitative Electroencephalography Dynamics in Prediction of Drowsy Driving on Simulator. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of BMES 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Papers Related to Neuroscience and Nerve Signal Processing
Chen C, Cavanaugh JM, Ozaktay AC, Kallakuri S, King AI: The Effects of Phospholipase A2 on Nerve Root Function and Structure. Spine 22(10):1057-1064, 1997.
Takebayashi T, Cavanaugh JM, Ozaktay AC, Kallakuri S, Chen C. Effect of Nucleus Pulposus on the Neural Activity of the Dorsal Root Ganglion. Spine 26(8):940-945, 2001.
Chen C, Cavanaugh JM, Song Z, Takebayashi T, Kallakuri S, Wooley PH. Effects of Nucleus Pulposus on Nerve Root Neural Activity, Mechanosensitivity, Axonal Morphology and Sodium Channel Expression. Spine 29(1):17-25, 2004.
Kallakuri S, Cavanaugh JM, Takebayashi T, Chen C, Yang SY, Wooley PH, Ozaktay AC. Epidural Application of Allografted Nucleus Pulposus in Rats: Cytokine Expression and Behavioral Changes. European Spine Journal 2005. DOI: 10.1007/s00586-004-0835-9.
Takebayashi T, Cavanaugh JM, Ozaktay AC, Kallakuri S, Chen C: Effect of Nucleus Pulposus on the Neural Activity of the Dorsal Root Ganglion. Orthopaedic Research Society, 46th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, March 12 15, 2000.
Takebayashi T, Cavanaugh JM, Ozaktay AC, Kallakuri S, Chen C: A Further Role of the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Mechanisms of Sciatica. The 27th Annual Meeting of International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Adelaide, Australia, April 9 13, 2000.
Chen C, Takebayashi T, Cavanaugh JM, Kallakuri S, King AI: Demonstration of a Sensory Pathway from Lower Lumbar Dorsal Root Ganglia to the L2 Nerve Roots. The 27th Annual Meeting of International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Adelaide, Australia, April 9 13, 2000.
Takebayashi T, Cavanaugh JM, Yamashita T, Kallakuri S, Chen C, Özaktay AC, Minaki Y, Sekine M, Kirita S, Tanno I, Ishii S: Characteristics of Sympathetic Afferent Units from the Lower Lumbar Disc. 28th Annual Meeting of International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Edinburgh, Scotland, June 19 23, 2001.
Chen C, Lu Y, Cavanaugh JM, Kallakuri S, Patwardhan A. Recording of Neural Activity from Goat Cervical Facet Joint Capsule Using Custom-Designed Miniature Electrodes. Spine 2005;30:1367-1372.
Lu Y, Chen C, Kallakuri S, Patwardhan A, Cavanaugh JM. Development of an In Vivo Method to Investigate Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Properties of Spine Facet Joint Capsules. European Spine Journal 2005;14(6);565-72.
Lu Y, Chen C, Kallakuri S, Patwardhan A, Cavanaugh JM: Neurophysiological and Biomechanical Characterization of Goat Cervical Facet Joint Capsules. Journal of Orthopaedic Research 2005;23(4):779-787.
Lu Y, Chen C, Kallakuri S, Patwardhan A, and Cavanaugh JM. Neural response of cervical facet joint capsule to stretch: a potential whiplash pain mechanism. Stapp Car Crash Journal 2005-22-0003, 49:49-65. Stapp Student Award for Best Paper
Singh A, Lu Y, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM. Mechanical properties of spinal nerve roots subjected to tension at different strain rates. J Biomech 2006; 39(9):1669-76. Epub 2005 Jul 5.
Takebayashi T, Cavanaugh JM, Kallakuri S, Chen C, Yamashita T. Sympathetic afferent units from lumbar intervertebral discs. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006 Apr;88(4):554-7.
Cavanaugh JM, Lu Y, Chen C, Kallakuri S. Pain Generation in Lumbar Facet Joints. J Bone Joint Surg Am: 2006 Apr; 88 Suppl 2:63-7.
Chen C, Lu Y, Kallakuri S, Patwardhan A, Cavanaugh JM. Distribution of A-delta and C-fiber receptors in the cervical facet joint capsule and their response to stretch. J Bone Joint Surg Am: 2006 Aug; 88(8):1807-16.
Singh A, Lu Y, Chen C, Kallakuri S, Cavanaugh JM. A new model of traumatic axonal injury to determine the effects of strain and displacement rates. Stapp Car Crash Journal. 2006-22-0023, 50:601-623. Stapp Student Award for Best Paper
Kallakuri S, Singh A, Lu Y, Chen C, Patwardhan A, Cavanaugh JM. Tensile stretching of cervical facet joint capsule and related axonal changes. Eur Spine J. 2008 Apr;17(4):556-63. PMID: 18080147.
Azar NR, Kallakuri S, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM. Strain and Load Thresholds for Cervical Muscle Recruitment in Response to Quasi-static Tensile Loading of the Caprine C5-C6 Facet Joint Capsule. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 2009 Dec;19(6):e387-94.
Singh A, Kallakuri S, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM. Structural and functional changes in nerve roots due to tension at various strains and strain rates: an in-vivo study. J Neurotrauma. 2009 Apr;26(4):627-40.
Chen C, Kallakuri S, Vedpathak A, Chimakurthy C, Cavanaugh JM, Clymer J, Malaviya P. The Effects of Ultrasonic and Monopolar Electrosurgery Devices on Sciatic Nerve Physiology. British Journal of Neurosurgery 2012 Dec;26(6):856-63.
Azar NR, Kallakuri S, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM. Muscular Response to Physiologic Tensile Stretch of the Caprine C5/6 Facet Joint Capsule: Dynamic Recruitment Thresholds and Latencies. Stapp Car Crash Journal 2011 Nov;55:441-60.
Kallakuri S, Li Y, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM. Innervation of cervical ventral facet joint capsule: Histological evidence. World J Orthop 2012 February 18; 3(2): 10-14. doi:10.5312/wjo.v3.i2.10
Chen C, Yaldo J, Virk G, Kallakuri S, Tanimoto K, Cavanaugh JM. Determination of Spinal Nerve Injury Tolerance to Stretch. Journal of Neurotrauma 2012，29:A-1-A-230. Page A79-B07. . DOI:10.1089/neu.2012.9943.
Chen C, Kallakuri S, Cavanaugh JM, Broughton D, Clymer JW. The subacute effects of ultrasonic and electrosurgery devices on nerve physiology. British Journal of Neurosurgery 2015. 2015 Mar 26:1-5.. DOI: 10.3109/02688697.2015.1023772
Bertke BD, Scoggins P, Welling AL, Widenhouse T, Chen C, Kallakuri S, Cavanaugh JM, Clymer JM, Amaral JF. Ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of an ultrasonic device for precise dissection, coagulation, and transection. Journal of Open Access Surgery 2015:8 1–7.
Papers Related to Computer Simulation and Finite Element Analysis
Chen C, Cheng B, Huang C, Jiang B, Chen D, Tao X. Finite Element Analysis of Cervical Spinal Nerve Tissue Tolerance to Whiplash Injury - A Preliminary Study. Proceedings of the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress 2012. In: Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 world automotive congress, Lecture notes in electrical engineering 197. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg 2013, pp 433– 448. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33805-2_35.
Kalra A, Zhu F, Chen C, Yang KH. A computational modeling of the biomechanical response of pig head under blast loading. In: Proceedings of 17th U.S. National Congress on Theoretical & Applied Mechanics, June, 2014, East Lansing, MI, USA.
Papers Related to Automotive Safety
Tao X, Cheng B, Wang B, Zhang F, Li G, Chen C. SEMG based prediction for lumbar muscle fatigue during prolonged driving.Paper presented at The 34th FISITA world automotive congress. In: Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 world automotive congress, vol 197. Lecture notes in electrical engineering. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 773–783. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33835-9_70.
Gao Z, Li Z, Zhao K, Zhao H, Yu H, Chen C. Characterization of Neck Muscle Response during Crash using A simulator. Automotive Engineering. 2014 (12);1466-1472. (In Chinese).
Gao Z, Fan D, Wang D, Zhao H, Zhao K, Chen C. Muscle activity and co-contraction of musculoskeletal model during steering maneuver. Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2014; 24(6):2697-706.
Meng X, Tao X, Wang W, Zhang C, Zhou C, Jin X, Cheng B, Cavanaugh JM, Chen C. Effects of sinusoidal whole body vibration frequency on drivers’ muscle responses. International Journal of SAE 2015. Paper #: 2015-01-1396. DOI:10.4271/2015-01-1396.
Gao Z, Li C, Hu H, Zhao H, Chen C, Yu H. Simulator Study of Young Driver's Instinctive Response of Lower Extremity to a Collision. Traffic Injury Prevention 2015. DOI:10.1080/ 15389588.2015.1081898
Gao Z, Li C, Hu H, Zhao H, Chen C, Yu H. Experimental study of young male drivers' responses to vehicle collision using EMG of lower extremity. Biomed Mater Eng 2015 Aug;26 Suppl 1:S563-73.
Gao Z, Li C, Hu H, Zhao H, Chen C, Yu H. Study of cervical muscle response and injury of driver during a frontal vehicle collision. Biomed Mater Eng 2015 Aug;26 Suppl 1:S619-27.
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Hui Zhao, Chaoyang Chen, Huili Yu. Study of the influence of muscle activation on a driver's lower extremity injury. International Journal of Crashworthiness 2016. DOI:10.1080/13588265.2016.1148320
Gao Z, Li, C, Hu H, Chen C. et al. "Study of Muscle Activation of Driver’s Lower Extremity at the Collision Moment." SAE International, Technical Paper 2016-01-1487, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-1487.
Papers Related to Machine Learning
Zeng C, Jiang Q, Chen C, Xu M. Application of Heart Rate Variability Analysis on Pain Detection for Newborns. Acta Phys. Sin, 2014, 63 (20): 208704. doi:10.7498/aps.63.208704.
Zeng C, Jiang Q, Chen C, Xu M. An EMD based method for detrending RR interval series without resampling. J. Cent. South Univ. (2015) 22: 567− 574. DOI: 10.1007/s11771-015-2557-z.
Papers Related to Human Machine Interface
Yi W, Chen C, Feng Z, Xu Y, Zhou C, Masurkar N, Cavanaugh JM; Cheng M. A Flexible and Implantable Microelectrode Arrays Using High-temperature Grown Vertical Carbon Nanotubes and a Biocompatible Polymer Substrate. Nanotechnology. 2015 Mar 27;26(12):125301. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/12/125301.
Wenwen Yi, Zhaoying Feng, Chengpeng Zhou, John Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen, Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng. An Ultrathin Flexible Carbon Nanotube Microelectrode Array for Neural Recording and Stimulation. BMES 2014 San Antonio, TX, USA. Podium.
Chaoyang Chen, Wenwen Yi, Xiangjie Meng, Chengpeng Zhou, Wenjun Wang, Bo Cheng, John Cavanaugh, Mark Cheng. Efficiency of Platinum and Nano-Graphene Electrodes in Electromyographic Signal Recordings. Annual Meeting of Orthopedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV 2015. DOI:10.1089/neu.2015.29000.abstracts.
Chaoyang Chen, Wenwen Yi, Zhaoying Feng, Chengpeng Zhou, John M Cavanaugh, Mark M. Cheng. Neurophysiologic Evaluation of Multi-Array Micro Graphene Electrodes for Neural Interface. BMES 2014 San Antonio, TX, USA. Poster.
Pan Tian, Chaoyang Chen, Wenwen Yi, Jie Hu, Jin Qi, Yang Zhou, Yousef Alshahrani, John Cavanaugh, Mark Cheng. Evaluations of Platinum and CNT-MEA Electrodes on Recording EMG as Peripheral Muscular Interface. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of BMES 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Pan Tian, Chaoyang Chen, Jie Hu, Jin Qi, Qianghua Wang, Jimmy Chen, John Cavanaugh, Yinghong Peng, Mark Cheng. Development of Brain Machine Interfaces Using 3D Printing and Chemical Modification Processes. BioFibrication 2016, (Submitted)
Wenwen Yi, Chaoyang Chen, Pan Tian, Yang Zhou, Jie Hu, John M Cavanaugh, Mark M. Cheng. Flexible 3D Carbon Nanotubes Cuff Electrode for Functional Electrical Stimulation. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of BMES 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Papers Related to Robotics
Chaoyang Chen, Guanghua Xu, John M Cavanaugh. Advance in Rehabilitative Intuitive Robotics. Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 2016. DOI:10.15406/jabb.2016.01.00002.
Chaoyang Chen, James Koehler, Valor Yaldo, Zhaoying Feng, Chengpeng Zhou, John M Cavanaugh, Wen Chen. Structure Design and Algorism Strategy for Exoskeleton Powered Knee Devices. BMES 2014 San Antonio, TX, USA. Podium.
Chaoyang Chen, James Koehler, Valor Yaldo, Peng Xu, Weidong Mu, Chengpeng Zhou, Wen Chen, John M Cavanaugh. Development of Electromyogram-Controlled Exoskeleton Knee Actuation. Annual Meeting of Orthopedic Research Society, Las Vegas, NV 2015.
Yang Zhou, Chaoyang Chen, Yousef Alshahrani, Pan Tian, Jie Hu, Mark Cheng, John Cavanaugh. Computer-Controlled Lower Limb Exoskeleton Ambulation System for Paraplegia. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of BMES 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Yousef Alshahrani, Chaoyang Chen, Yang Zhou, Pan Tian, Jie Hu, Jin Qi, John Cavanaugh, Mark Cheng. Designing A Rapidly Responding Actuation for Medical Robotic Exoskeleton Joints. Proceedings of Annual Meeting of BMES 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Papers Related to Brain Injury
Zhang L, Feng K, Chen C, Jin X, Kallakuri K, Cavanaugh JM, King AI. Mechanical Repsonse of Swine Exposed to Free-Filed Blasts. Journal of Neurotrauma 2015, 32:A-1-A-152. Page A-105. DOI:10.1089/neu.2015.29000.abstracts.
Zhang L, Kallakuri S, Desai A, Mathei J, Dawe E, Feng K, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM, King AI. Open Field Primary Blast Exposure Induces Neuronal and Glial Alternations in Frontal Cortex. Journal of Neurotrauma 2015, 32:A-1-A-152. Page B2-12. DOI:10.1089/neu.2015. 29000.abstracts.
Chen C, Zhou C, Cavanaugh JM, Kallakuri S, Desai A, Zhang L, King AI. Quantitative Electroencephalography Analysis of Blast Induced Brain Injury in A Swine Model. Brain Injury 2016. (Accepted)（In Press）DOI: 10.1080/02699052.2016.1216603.
Ke Feng, Liying Zhang, Xin Jin, Chaoyang Chen, Srinivasu Kallakuri, Tal Saif, John Cavanaugh, Albert King. Biomechanical responses of the brain in swine subject to free-field blasts. Frontiers in Neurology 2016. (Accepted)
Papers Related to Orthopaedic Surgery
Chen C, Zhao Z, Jiang H. Axial traction straight leg raising test for type lumbar disc herniation. Chinese Journal of Spine and Spinal Cord 1992; 2(3):125- 126. (In Chinese)
Chen C, Wang H, Chen R. Photoelasticity biomechanical study for stress distribution in spine segment fixed by trans-pedicular screw system for thoracolumbar fracture. Transactions of the 2nd National Congress of Chinese Medical Rehabilitation Association. Beijing, China, October 1993.
He SJ, Wang HG, Chen C. Evaluation of Scoliosis Surgical Treatment Outcomes - 54 Clinical Cases Review. Chinese Journal of Spine and Spinal Cord 1994;4(3):124-125. (In Chinese)
Xu P, Wang H, Liu Z, Mu W, Xu S, Chen C, Cavanaugh JM. An Evaluation of 3D Image-Guided Technologies in Percutaneous Pelvic and Acetabular Lag Screw Placement. J Surg Res. 2013 Jun 22. doi:pii: S0022-4804(13)00557-X. 10.1016/j.jss.2013.05.074.
Lin X, Chen C. Treatment of lumbar disk herniation by herbal medicines and their pharmacologic mechanisms. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica (Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi) 2007;32(3):186-91. PMID: 17432134.
Paul Dougherty, Chaoyang Chen, Yiyuan Zhang. Orthopaedic Surgery Education in China. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2016. CORR-D-16-01382. Submitted.
Other Professional Experience
Guest Professor, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shan-Dong Province Hospital, Shan-Dong University, Ji-Nan, Shan-Dong, China
Guest Professor, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Awards and Honors
International Fellow, Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Seattle, Washington 1994
Sofamor Danek Award for Outstanding Poster, Annual Meeting of the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Seattle, Washington 1994
William D. Robinson Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, Arthritis Foundation, Michigan Chapter, Medical & Scientific Committee, 1997-1998.
Research Grant Award, Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation, 1998-2000.
New Investigator Recognition Award. Annual Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Society, Washington DC, 2004
Stapp Student Award for Best Paper, Stapp Car Crash Conference, Washington DC, 2005
John Paul Stapp Best Paper Award, Stapp Car Crash Conference, 2005
Stapp Student Award for Best Paper, Anita Singh, Stapp Car Crash Conference, Dearborn,
Stapp Student Award for Best Paper, Nadia Azar, Stapp Car Crash Conference, Dearborn,
The Third Prize Award. “Low-Cost Development of High Quality Automotive Safety Products.” China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) and Detroit Chinese Business Association (DCBA) Detroit, June 2014.