In September 2008, researchers at Wayne State University were awarded a grant from the Great Lakes Protection Fund (GLPF) to develop software that will aid in reducing pollutant air emissions from energy used by water utilities. The project was being carried out in partnership with engineers from the University of Dayton, and the consulting companies Tucker, Young, Jackson, Tull, Inc., and Commonwealth Associates, Inc. This 2008 award was followed by a 2013 award from GLPF to commercialize a key technology that was developed pursuant to PEPSO (Pollutant Emission and Pump Station Optimization), LEEM (Locational Emissions Estimation Methodology). The LEEM venture escalated into a university start-up business, Energy Emissions Intelligence (E2i). Currently, the American Water Works Association (AWWA) is working with WSU, E2i and others to spread the use of PEPSO to water utilities throughout the Great Lakes region.